Resource Recovery

“A key component of the ideal industrial ecosystem

is to increase resource efficiency through circulating material.”

In the circular economy, in theory, there is no such thing as waste. In fact, the word ‘waste’ will become obsolete over the next 20 years even if it takes another 100 years for the circular economy to fully evolve.  While some people see the circular economy as a hierarchy of functions, with recycling the least desirable of options, here at Circular Economy Asia, we believe there is no hierarchy.

The foundation and historical roots of the circular economy lies in resource efficiency. We start this by looking at every thing we see, all the products we buy and all the services we use, as a resource and all, ultimately, are manufactured or powered by energy. 

Resource Recovery Skills Training


Visit our online Resource Recovery skills training course. Self-learning is free, and we offer hosted skills training and workshops, both online and offline for a fee.

Click on the image or text to download the in-person workshop brochure and the Guide to Recyclable and Non-Recyclable Materials. Please note: The Guide is very much a work in progress as the reprocessing industry is constantly evolving.  


At a product’s earliest conception, selecting materials and how the product is designed will determine how this ‘resource’ will end up. The materials and design will decide how a product is used and passed on. There may be additional interactions with the product depending on the style (classic or fast-fashion), reason or emotional attachment. For example, we may buy a piece of clothing only for a special occasion. Or a kitchen utility that can last for many years.

We mainly prolong the use-cycle of a product because we are emotionally attached or based on an economic decision (it may be cheaper to repair than buy new). We seldom consider the product as a resource and dispose of it accordingly.


Once we are ready to dispose of a product, this phase may be called ‘resource recovery‘. It is the first step in deciding which path the resource will take after disposal. For example, if a product (resource) has been designed well, it may be reused or repaired.

Usually machinery or equipment is ‘remanufactured‘. Furniture or buildings are ‘refurbished‘. If we are creative we may chose to ‘repurpose‘ a resource. 

In most of these situations, we are not really thinking or seeing these products are ‘resources’, at least not in the traditional sense. However, in the circular economy this is how we need to think. 

Eventually, all products reach an end of a use-cycle. Here again, the design and type of material will determine the lasting value of all the resources that went into making the product. Ideally, all end of use-cycle products should become a secondary raw material, to become feedstock for the manufacturing industry.

Our society needs to develop the infrastructure where all products that we dispose of do not end up as ‘waste’ where it can become contaminated and lose their resource value. Consumer engagement, Separation-at-Source activities and adopting the language of resource efficiency are just some of the action steps we can take.

Zero Waste & Zero Waste to Landfill

The concept of Zero Waste has been around for quite a long time. The goal of Zero Waste to Landfill has become increasingly popular, especially since ESG reporting has become more widespread. There are also a growing number of organizations that offer verification services on a company’s ability to achieve Zero Waste to Landfill or Near Zero Waste to Landfill.

According to the Zero Waste International Alliance, the definition of zero waste is “The conservation of all resources by means of responsible production, consumption, reuse, and recovery of products, packaging, and materials without burning and with no discharges to land, water, or air that threaten the environment or human health.” Sounds a lot like the circular economy?   

We need to be careful about the goal of Zero Waste to Landfill. Even with the most efficient systems in place, some materials are inevitably sent to landfill at some point downstream of the waste treatment. For example, energy recovery will lead to the production of residual waste in the form of ash. And some regulated hazardous substances must be sent to landfill, because there are no other legally permitted alternative waste treatment methods.

There is also the issue of fraud in waste management. This may mean that even the best of intentions, some part of an organisation’s waste may end up in landfill without its knowledge. Although to mitigate the risk of fraud, businesses should choose good quality waste management partners and conduct regular audits.¹

In the circular economy, the current hinderance is the lack of adequate processes and facilities to divert recovered resources where it can be categorised for any one of the Circular Rs.

The Law of Supply and Demand

When we see mountains of waste, all too often we think this is the problem we have to solve. Although collection systems and infrastructure remain weak or non-existent in many countries, we have the technology to manage most of it, even if the economics requires scale.

The real challenge is the demand side. Many products made from secondary raw materials have a ‘green premium’ making them more expensive than products manufactured from virgin resources. Or there is a perception around poor quality. Thus demand remains low and the solution to a healthy secondary raw materials industry is in a robust demand-driven market.

The supply-side – mountains of waste

The demand-side – desks made from Tetra Pak