Circular Remanufacture


Remanufacturing is the 3rd part of the inner circle of the circular economy butterfly diagram. Yet this economic activity is not new as many large companies have been refurbishing / remanufacturing combustion engines, automotive components, machine tools, jet turbines, railway rolling stock and aircraft for some years. However it is not a mainstream economic activity due to design constraints of products and a lack of skilled workers. For this circular activity to grow requires a standardisation of language, parts, processes and a focus on training workers.

AboutMarketplace ExamplesCircular PrinciplesButterfly Diagram
Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby products referred as cores are restored for continued use. During this process the core pass through a number of remanufacturing steps, e.g. inspection, disassembly, part replacement/refurbishment, cleaning, reassembly, and testing to ensure it meets the desired product standards.


CIRCULAR REmanufacturing returns a used product to at least its original performance with a warranty that is equivalent or better than that of the newly manufactured product. Therefore, there is a need for a collaborative network between customers, retailers, third parties and manufacturers to facilitate returns and exchanges.

The product or machine should preform as a new one and includes a warranty.

Reman Day in April
Remanufacturing Industries Council USA
European Remanufacturing Network
Shoey Shoes - UK

Roetz Bikes - The Netherlands
Waste as a resource:
Products or parts that have reached its end of its use-cycle.

Business models:
Pay-per-use, leasing, incentivised return, trade-ins, deposit return

Circular Design: Durability, Disassembly, Modularity, Cleaning
Technical: Remanufacture, Refurbish

Circular Economy Butterfly Diagram


In a Circular Economy both natural (biological) and man-made (technical) materials circulate in production cycles. Refer to Circular Economy for a more detailed description.

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