Circular Remanufacturing

Remanufacturing is a comprehensive and rigorous industrial process by which a previously sold, worn, or non-functional product or component is returned to a “like-new” or “better-than-new” condition with a warranty that guarantees a level of performance and quality.

Remanufacturing is not the same as “recycling” or “repairing”. A lack of awareness of remanufacturing and its benefits by dealers, customers and policymakers remains a major obstacle to growth of the industry.

Some of the benefits of remanufacturing include:

    • Conservation of materials (of increasing importance as raw materials become scarcer and more expensive)
    • Reduced energy consumption during manufacturing
    • Reduced waste (and associated disposal costs)
    • Lower price for comparable quality

Some of the most commonly remanufactured product categories are:

    • Aircraft components
    • Automotive parts
    • Electrical and electronic equipment
    • Engines and components
    • Medical equipment
    • Office furniture
    • Printing equipment
    • Restaurant and food-service equipment

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Remanufacturing is an important component of a resource efficient manufacturing industry. By keeping components and their embodied material in use for longer, significant energy use and emissions to air and water (e.g. CO2 and SO2) can be avoided. In addition to environmental benefits, remanufacturing provides opportunities for the creation of highly skilled jobs and economic growth.

Benefits of Remanufacturing

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AboutMarketplace ExamplesCircular PrinciplesButterfly Diagram
Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby products referred as cores are restored for continued use. During this process the core pass through a number of remanufacturing steps, e.g. inspection, disassembly, part replacement/refurbishment, cleaning, reassembly, and testing to ensure it meets the desired product standards.


CIRCULAR REmanufacturing returns a used product to at least its original performance with a warranty that is equivalent or better than that of the newly manufactured product. Therefore, there is a need for a collaborative network between customers, retailers, third parties and manufacturers to facilitate returns and exchanges.

The product or machine should preform as a new one and includes a warranty.

British Standard 8887-220:2010 design for MADE
- M = Manufacture
- A = Assembly
- D = Disassembly
- E = End of use-cycle processing

#1: From a customer viewpoint, the remanufactured product can be
considered to be the same as the new product.
#2: Remanufacturing may not use repaired or reconditioned parts.
#3: Remanufacturing may not use repaired or reconditioned parts.
- Remanufacturing effort involves dismantling the product, the restoration and replacement of components and testing of the individual parts and whole
product to ensure that it is within its original design specifications;
- Performance after remanufacture is expected to be at least to the original
performance specification; and
- Any subsequent warranty is generally at least equal to that of new product.

See: American National Standard RIC001.1-2016: Specifications for the Process of Remanufacturing.

Reman Day in April
Remanufacturing Industries Council USA
European Remanufacturing Network
Shoey Shoes - UK

Roetz Bikes - The Netherlands
Waste as a resource:
Products or parts that have reached its end of its use-cycle.

Business models:
Pay-per-use, leasing, incentivised return, trade-ins, deposit return

Circular Design: Durability, Disassembly, Modularity, Cleaning
Technical: Remanufacture, Refurbish

Circular Economy Butterfly Diagram


In a Circular Economy both natural (biological) and man-made (technical) materials circulate in production cycles. Refer to Circular Economy for a more detailed description.

Knowledge Centre


Partial text:  Remanufacturing Industries Council

Benefits of Remanufacturing images: European Remanufacturing Network